Ubuntu Portal: February 2007

Wednesday, February 28, 2007

CD/DVD Burning

How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD

nautilus burn:///
  • File Browser: CD/DVD Creator
  • Drag files/folders into window
File Menu -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD

Right click on Image (ISO) file -> Write to Disc... -> Write

How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD

  • e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
sudo umount /dev/cdrom
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso bs=1024

How to create Image (ISO) files from folders

mkisofs -r -o file.iso /location_of_folder/

How to generate MD5 checksum file

md5sum file.iso > file.iso.md5

How to check MD5 checksum of files

e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder
md5sum -c file.iso.md5

How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning

  • To mount Image (ISO) file
sudo mkdir /media/iso
sudo modprobe loop
sudo mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop
  • To unmount Image (ISO) file
sudo umount /media/iso/

How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner

  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> default_speed (set/change the burn speed)

How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner

  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> burnproof (Checked)

How to enable overburn for CD/DVD Burner

  • Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  • Configuration Editor
/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> overburn (Checked)

sources: http://ubuntuguide.org/wiki/Ubuntu_Edgy#CD_.26_DVD_burning_.26_ripping

How to install a Wacom tablet

For a detailed guide with screenshots about how to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications, please follow the official Dapper guide at https://wiki.ubuntu.com//Wacom

With the version of the Linux Wacom driver (0.7.2) in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake, if you unplug you tablet, it won't function when you plug it back in and you will have to restart X. For this reason, it is best to leave the tablet plugged in. This limitation will be removed when the 0.7.4 version of the driver is included in Ubuntu.

  • 1. Using Synaptic package manager, check if the packages xserver-xorg-input-wacom and wacom-tools are already installed - if not, install them. If you prefer using the command line, you can also execute :
     sudo apt-get install xserver-xorg-input-wacom wacom-tools
  • 2. Save a copy of your /etc/X11/xorg.conf :
      sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup
  • then edit it with the command line :
      gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • and change all /dev/wacom occurences into /dev/input/wacom (created by wacom-tools udev scripts), then save the file.
  • You should be ready to go after you have restarted X. Remember to configure the "Extended input devices" in your graphic applications (Gimp, Inkscape), however you can already check if it's working by moving your stylus on the tablet : the mouse cursor should go through the whole screen.

How to setup the surround speakers (5.1 and others) with ALSA

  • Edit the ~/.asoundrc file, create it if it doesn't exist:
gedit ~/.asoundrc
  • Enter the following section:
pcm.!default {
type plug
slave.pcm "surround51"
slave.channels 6
route_policy duplicate
  • This will allow to play the surround output and duplicate the stereo output to all 6 channels (not only front ones).

How to enable Large Widescreen Support

  • 24/23" widescreen monitors sometimes have issues running 1920x1200.
  • Examples include: Dell 2405, HP 2335 or an Apple Cinema Display.
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add the following line to the appropriate "Monitor" section
Modeline "1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235
  • For example the HP2335 should now look like:
Section "Monitor"
Identifier "hp L2335"
Option "DPMS"
Modeline "1920x1200" 154 1920 1968 2000 2080 1200 1203 1209 1235

How to configure PalmOS Devices

gksudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules
  • Insert the following line into the new file
BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"
  • Save the edited file
  • Add the pilot-applet to the Taskbar by Right-Clicking on an empty spot
  • Follow the instructions on screen

How to enable WPA with Ndiswrapper driver

First, make sure the Ndiswrapper driver works by itself without encryption.

Create a file called /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf, and paste in the following. Modify the ssid and psk values.
  • Test it. Make sure your router is broadcasting its SSID.
sudo wpa_supplicant -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -dd
  • If your WPA works. Load it automatically when you reboot.
gksudo gedit /etc/network/interfaces
  • Change your wlan0 section to the following.

If you are using static IP:

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet static
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant

or this, if you are using dhcp.

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
pre-up wpa_supplicant -Bw -Dwext -iwlan0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant

  • Reboot

Ndiswrapper for Broadcom 43xx wireless chipset

The Broadcom 43xx (bcm43xx) wireless chipset is one of the most common chipsets, so special scripts have been written for it.
  • Only follow this if you have a bcm43xx device. To check in the Terminal type:
lspci | grep Broadcom\ Corporation

If it displays a line similar to this,

0000:02:02.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4306 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 03)

you have a Broadcom wireless chipset. Please proceed with the instructions.

  • Put the Ubuntu CD that you installed Ubuntu with in the CD drive.
  • Download this to the desktop (the Firefox default, so if you haven't changed it, that's where it went/will go).
  • In a terminal type
cd ~/Desktop (or wherever you downloaded the file)
tar -xf bcm4318*.tar.gz
sudo ./ndiswrapper_setup

Your wireless chipset should now work. Try rebooting if you have problems. Please see this thread if you have problems: http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=197102&highlight=install+ndiswrapper

How to install Windows Wireless Drivers using Ndiswrapper

  • Find out if you have acx module loaded. Because acx module interferes with windows driver, we need to remove it if it is found.
lsmod | grep acx
  • Remove the acx module if found. It could also be acx_pci or similar. Please Note: New kernel updates will auto load the acx module again. So repeat the following two commands every time the kernel is updated.
sudo rmmod acx
sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist
  • Add a new list at the end of the file like this:
# drivers wireless ACX
blacklist acx
  • Install ndiswrapper and drivers (due to a bug in Edgy, you need to specify ndiswrapper-utils-1.8)
sudo apt-get install ndiswrapper-utils-1.8
sudo ndiswrapper -i /location_of_your_wireless_driver/your_driver.inf
sudo ndiswrapper -l
sudo modprobe ndiswrapper
  • Set ndiswrapper to load on startup
sudo ndiswrapper -m
gksudo gedit /etc/modules
  • Add the following module to the list
  • Now you can configure your wireless card with ifconfig and iwconfig.
e.g. Supposing wlan0 is your wireless device.
sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid "AP" key ababababababababab mode Managed
  • You sould now be able to see the MAC address of the access point and signal rate.

How to identify Modem chipset

wget -c http://easylinux.info/uploads/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/
  • To identify Modem chipset
sudo scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

How to Correct the Graphics Resolution (Intel)

  • ntel 915g, 945g, etc. graphics chipsets only have a limited set of resolutions initially installed, despite the correct driver being detected.
  • Install the resolution altering tool:
sudo apt-get install 915resolution
  • Run the following to see the availible modes:
915resolution -l
  • Choose a resolution you don't need and replace, for example the following changes 1920x1440 to 1920x1200
915resolution 5c 1920 1200
  • This should add the option for that resolution to the "System>Preferences>Screen Resolution" tool.
  • If it works correctly then you can make the change permanent:
sudo gedit /etc/rc.local
  • Simply add the command you typed in above before:
exit 0

How to setup pivot (screen rotation) with proprietary NVIDIA drivers

  • Some LCD monitors are equipped with the pivot feature, to take advantage of it the display has to be rotated 90 degrees. The proprietary nVidia drivers support hardware rotation with the Xrandr extension.
  • To enable rotation support find the "Device" section for the "nvidia" driver in the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:
Section "Device"                                                               
Identifier "NVIDIA Corporation NV34 [GeForce FX 5200]"
Driver "nvidia"
  • Add the following option to this section:
       Option          "RandRRotation" "on"
  • Then the display can be rotated (direction depends on the orientation of the monitor) by:
  1. Setting the "Rotation" property to either "Left" or "Right" in the "System > Preferences > Screen Resolution" dialog.
  2. Issuing either "xrandr -o left" or "xrandr -o right" command.

How to install Beta Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

  • Thanks to Alberto Milone
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add ONE of the following lines based on your architecture
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/latest/32bit binary/
deb http://www.albertomilone.com/drivers/edgy/latest/64bit binary/
  • Save the edited file
  • Add the GPG key
wget http://albertomilone.com/drivers/tseliot.asc
gpg --import tseliot.asc
gpg --export --armor albertomilone@alice.it | sudo apt-key add -
  • Update and install
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx
sudo apt-get upgrade
  • The upgrade should update your linux-restricted-modules & linux-restricted-modules-common packages.
sudo nvidia-xconfig
  • Add a menu option for nVidia Settings
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/NVIDIA-Settings.desktop
  • Insert these lines in the new file and save
[Desktop Entry]
Name=NVIDIA Settings
Comment=NVIDIA Settings
  • Restart the computer and your new drivers should be installed.
  • Test the install with these 2 programs

How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)

sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx nvidia-kernel-common
sudo nvidia-xconfig
  • Should the above not enable the new driver, you can enable it manually by opening the X config file:
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

  • and replacing "nv" with "nvidia"
  • Enable XvMC by creating the nVidia XvMC configuration file
sudo gedit /etc/X11/XvMCConfig
  • Insert the following line into the new configuration file, to tell the players the name of the nVidia XvMC shared library:
  • To use XvMC to accelerate video playback, use the following flags. See [[2]] for more details.
xine -V xxmc filename.ts
mplayer -vo xvmc -vc ffmpeg12mc filename.ts

How to install Beryl/AIGLX (Intel i915)

Follow the how-to on beryl project wiki.

If that does not work, check if you have direct rendering enabled (type into the terminal):

glxinfo | grep direct

The output should be:

direct rendering: Yes

If the output says No, check you have direct rendering manager loaded:

lsmod|grep 915

The output should be:

i915   21632  3
drm 74644 4 i915
tsdev 9152 0

If it shows only tsdev line, you can try to configure xorg.conf to driver i810, restart, CTRL-ALT-F1 to terminal session and configure xorg.conf back to use i915. That helped me.

How to install Beryl/AIGLX (Nvidia)

  • Ensure all packages up to date
Install your *ubuntu-desktop metapackage specific to your DE, e.g. sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Add repositories
gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add the following line at the end of this file (x86 and amd64):
deb http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/ edgy main
  • Add key
wget http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/root@lupine.me.uk.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Save the edited file then update package lists
sudo apt-get update
  • Install Beryl
sudo apt-get install beryl emerald-themes
  • Back up xorg.conf
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Add this to xorg.conf "Screen" section
# Enable 32-bit ARGB GLX Visuals
Option "AddARGBGLXVisuals" "True"

# If you are using an older version of compiz that
# does not support rendering into the Composite
# Overlay Window, you will need to disable clipping
# of GLX rendering to the X Root window with this
# option, or you will get a blank screen after
# starting compiz:
Option "DisableGLXRootClipping" "True"
  • Add this to xorg.conf "Device" section
Option          "TripleBuffer" "true"
  • Restart X with ctrl+alt+backspace
  • Start Beryl (if it doesn't start on its own)
  • Start Emerald (if it doesn't start on its own)
emerald --replace
  • Have Beryl and Emerald load on login
    • System -> Preferences -> Sessions
    • Startup Programs -> Add


emerald --replace
    • If, on reboot, program menus aren't displaying in the correct layer (you can't see them when you select them because they are displaying behind the window) then right click on the 'Beryl Manager' icon in the panel (the red gem icon) and select 'Reload Window Manager'. The problem should be solved the next time you reboot.
  • Some users have found that the latest beryl packages are not working properly, and beryl fails to load. This can be fixed by:

Open synaptic package manager, search for beryl, press ctrl+e and select version You have to do this for beryl, beryl-core, beryl-manager, beryl-plugins, beryl-plugins-data, beryl-settings, beryl-settings-binding, libberyldecoration0 and libberylsettings0

Source: http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=353809

How to install Xgl/Beryl (ATI)

(From Beryl Forums) (Also From Ubuntu Forums)

First make sure you have 3d acceleration available in a normal gnome session. There are lots of howtos for this , Google if you need any help with that. So if glxinfo shows direct rendering: yes , then you are good to go. If not xgl and Beryl wont work!

  • Update your system
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude dist-upgrade
  • Prepare and update repositories
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Add to /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org edgy main
deb-src http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org edgy main
deb http://download.tuxfamily.org/3v1deb edgy beryl-svn
deb-src http://download.tuxfamily.org/3v1deb edgy beryl-svn
  • Download and import the gpg key for beryl & beryl svn project repositories
wget http://ubuntu.beryl-project.org/root@lupine.me.uk.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
wget http://download.tuxfamily.org/3v1deb/DD800CD9.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
  • Update your sources
sudo aptitude update
  • Install needed packages
sudo apt-get install xserver-xgl libgl1-mesa xserver-xorg libglitz-glx1 beryl \
beryl-core beryl-manager beryl-plugins beryl-plugins-data beryl-settings emerald \
  • Make a startup script for xgl
sudo gedit /usr/bin/startxgl
  • Add to /usr/bin/startxgl
Xgl :1 -fullscreen -ac -accel xv:pbuffer -accel glx:pbuffer &
exec dbus-launch --exit-with-session gnome-session
  • Make the script executable
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/startxgl
  • Make a xgl session for the login manager
sudo gedit /usr/share/xsessions/xgl.desktop
  • Add to /usr/share/xsessions/xgl.desktop
[Desktop Entry]
Comment=Start an Xgl Session
  • System > Preferences > Sessions > Startup Programs > Add
  • Reboot
  • In the login manager you can now choose a session named Xgl
  • Answer to following question that you want to use Xgl for this session only (if something went wrong you are logged in next time using standard session)
  • If everything works fine , you can set it as the default session , remember you can always login a normal gnome session if you want.
  • If you own an x series radeon and have problems with lockups, read this post:


Note for all cards: glxinfo will show that direct rendering is not working , dont worry thats normal when you are running xgl.

Install Eye Candy (nVidia)

  • Preparation
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • Find this section
Section "Module"
Load "i2c"
Load "bitmap"
Load "type1"
Load "vbe"
  • Comment out dri and GLcore (if present)


# Load "dri"
# Load "GLcore"
  • Make sure the glx module is loaded
 Load "glx"
  • Find this section (your values may vary)
Section "Device"
Identifier "NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
Driver "nv"
BusID "PCI:1:0:0"
  • Replace with the following lines, leaving the Identifier and BusID as it is
Section "Device"
Driver "nvidia"
Option "RenderAccel" "true"
Option "AllowGLXWithComposite" "true"
  • Find this section
Section "Screen"
Identifier "Default Screen"
Device "NVIDIA Corporation NV34M [GeForce FX Go5200]"
Monitor "Generic Monitor"
DefaultDepth 16
  • Make sure DefaultDepth is set to 24, if it isn't already
 DefaultDepth 24
  • Save the edited file
  • Install Xgl + Compiz
sudo cp /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom-backup
sudo gedit /etc/gdm/gdm.conf-custom
  • Scroll to the bottom of the file and replace "servers" section with the following lines, then save the file.
[servers]# Override display 1 to use Xgl

name=Xgl server
command=/usr/bin/Xgl :0 -fullscreen -ac -accel glx:pbuffer -accel xv:fbo
  • Edit your sources.list (sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list) and add the following line to the bottom:
deb http://gandalfn.club.fr/ubuntu edgy dev
  • Save the file. You must also download the gpg key by running the following command:
gpg --keyserver hkp://wwwkeys.eu.pgp.net --recv-keys 0x483170E9 ; gpg --export -a 0x483170E9 | sudo apt-key add -
  • After doing the above you must update apt-get:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • Now install all necessary packages:
sudo apt-get install compiz compiz-plugins gnome-compiz-manager xserver-xgl libgl1-mesa xserver-xorg libglitz-glx1
  • To start Compiz you can type the following into a terminal:
  • You should then see a Compiz icon on your gnome panel. Right click on it and select "GL Desktop".You may also want to add this command to your session start-up programs list.
  • Another useful utility is Compiz Settings Manager.Download from http://www.go-compiz.org/index.php?title=Compiz-Settings

  • Troubleshooting
    • If Xgl/Compiz doesn't seem to work, or you get errors, simply restart your machine. (Recommended)

How to install FluxBox

sudo aptitude install fluxbox
Make it start when you login through GDM
echo "exec startfluxbox" > ~/.xinitrc
Make it make the pretty sound on login
sudo aptitude install sox
gedit ~/.fluxbox/startup
  • Find this line:
exec /usr/local/bin/fluxbox
  • Put this above it somewhere:
play /usr/share/sounds/login.wav > /dev/null 2>&1 &
  • Listen happily.

How to install XFCE 4.4

sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install xubuntu-desktop

Also recomended to install thunar-volman, the tool for automatic mount of removable devices
sudo aptitude install thunar-volman

How to install KDE

sudo aptitude install kubuntu-desktop

Note: This installation will require ~400MB of disk space
  • System -> Log Out -> Log Out
  • To log in to KDE click on Sessions and choose KDE

How to install EasyUbuntu

  • Easy Ubuntu is a small straight-forward utility that allows novice users to easily install a wide variety of content for Ubuntu such as media codecs, fonts, Macromedia Flash and Sun Java.

Open a terminal from Menu -> Accessories -> Terminal and run the following commands

wget http://easyubuntu.freecontrib.org/files/easyubuntu-3.023.tar.gz
tar -zxf easyubuntu-3.023.tar.gz
cd easyubuntu
cp packagelist-dapper.pot packagelist-edgy.pot
cp packagelist-dapper.xml packagelist-edgy.xml
sudo python easyubuntu.in
  • From the Easy Ubuntu window, check the appropriate boxes to download and install content to Ubuntu.
  • Note: Users of the previous EasyUbuntu 3.0 version may experience issues with installing Flash and Java.
  • If you would like automatic update, then follow these instructions:

depending on which version of Ubuntu you're using:

On Ubuntu:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

On Kubuntu:

sudo kate /etc/apt/sources.list

On Xubuntu:

gksudo mousepad /etc/apt/sources.list

In your text editor which will open, add to the bottom of your /etc/apt/sources.list file:

deb http://easyubuntu.cafuego.net main easyubuntu

How to add extra repositories

sudo cp -p /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  • Replace everything with the following lines
To use your local mirror you can add "cc." before archive.ubuntu.com (cc = your country code)
e.g. deb http://lv.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse
## Add comments (##) in front of any line to remove it from being checked.  
## Use the following sources.list at your own risk.

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

## MAJOR BUG FIX UPDATES produced after the final release
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse

## BACKPORTS REPOSITORY (Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu edgy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy free
deb-src http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/ edgy non-free

## CANONICAL COMMERCIAL REPOSITORY (Hosted on Canonical servers, not Ubuntu
## servers. RealPlayer10, Opera, DesktopSecure and more to come.)
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu edgy-commercial main

## Listen
#deb http://theli.free.fr/packages/ edgy listen
  • Save the edited file
wget -q http://medibuntu.sos-sts.com/repo/medibuntu-key.gpg -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo aptitude update
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